Jumat, 19 Oktober 2018

One Small Step for the Web...

a blog post by Tim Berners-Lee (inventor of World Wide Web)

I've always believed the web is for everyone. That's why I and others fight fiercely to protect it. The changes we've managed to bring have created a better and more connected world. But for all the good we've achieved, the web has evolved into an engine of inequity and division; swayed by powerful forces who use it for their own agendas.

Today, I believe we've reached a critical tipping point, and that powerful change for the better is possible - and necessary.

This is why I have, over recent years, been working with a few people at MIT and elsewhere to develop Solid, an open-source project to restore the power and agency of individuals on the web.

Solid changes the current model where users have to hand over personal data to digital giants in exchange for perceived value. As we've all discovered, this hasn't been in our best interests. Solid is how we evolve the web in order to restore balance - by giving every one of us complete control over data, personal or not, in a revolutionary way.

Solid is a platform, built using the existing web. It gives every user a choice about where data is stored, which specific people and groups can access select elements, and which apps you use. It allows you, your family and colleagues, to link and share data with anyone. It allows people to look at the same data with different apps at the same time.

Solid unleashes incredible opportunities for creativity, problem-solving and commerce. It will empower individuals, developers and businesses with entirely new ways to conceive, build and find innovative, trusted and beneficial applications and services. I see multiple market possibilities, including Solid apps and Solid data storage.

Data should empower you

Solid is guided by the principle of "personal empowerment through data" which we believe is fundamental to the success of the next era of the web. We believe data should empower each of us.

Imagine if all your current apps talked to each other, collaborating and conceiving ways to enrich and streamline your personal life and business objectives? That's the kind of innovation, intelligence and creativity Solid apps will generate.

With Solid, you will have far more personal agency over data - you decide which apps can access it.

Injecting momentum

In 2009, I said, "The web as I envisaged it we have not seen yet." That was because people were using the web just for documents, not for the data of a big web-wide computer. Since then, we have seen a wave of open data, but not of read-write data.  For example, much open government data is produced through a one-way pipeline, so we can only view it. With Solid, it becomes a read-write web where users can interact and innovate, collaborate and share.

Meanwhile though, there is a wave of concern, and related energy, desperate for change.  People want to have a web they can trust. People want apps that help them do what they want and need to do - without spying on them. Apps that don't have an ulterior motive of  distracting them with propositions to buy this or that. People will pay for this kind of quality and assurance. For example, today people pay for storage in places like Dropbox. There is a need for Solid, and the different, beneficial approach it will provide.   

It is going to take a lot of effort to build the new Solid platform and drive broad adoption but I think we have enough energy to take the world to a new tipping point.

So I have taken a sabbatical from MIT, reduced my day-to-day involvement with the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and founded a company called inrupt where I will be guiding the next stage of the web in a very direct way. Inrupt will be the infrastructure allowing Solid to flourish. Its mission is to provide commercial energy and an ecosystem to help protect the integrity and quality of the new web built on Solid.

There are many examples of open-source efforts that have benefited hugely from the contribution of a well-resourced company. While the open-source community provides initiative and a deep source of innovation, everyday web users as well as businesses often look for applications and services from a commercial entity that also provides technical support and vital, ancillary business services.

I believe this same model will be critical to the success of Solid. Inrupt's success is totally aligned to Solid's success. My partner and inrupt co-founder is John Bruce, an experienced business leader with the skills to execute on my vision for Solid. We share the same passion for creating a better and more balanced web.

Together, Solid and inrupt will provide new experiences benefitting every web user - and that are impossible on the web today. Where individuals, developers and businesses create and find innovative, life- and business-enriching, applications and services. Where we all find trusted services for storing, securing and managing personal data.

I'm incredibly optimistic for this next era of the web.

I'll still be acting as Founder and Director of W3C, the Web Foundation and the Open Data Institute as these are vital components for protecting what has been - and what will come. Inrupt, a W3C member, uses many existing standards and is part of the standards-building community. The Web Foundation advocates for data rights as part of its mission to advance a free and open web that benefits humanity. And the Open Data Institute's drive to make data as open as possible while respecting privacy is very relevant. I wear many hats and when I'm working in each capacity, I'll always try to act according to the interests of that organization.

These are very exciting times. I will be committed to steering the direction of Solid, and developing its future governance. Inrupt will do many things: its first priority will be the Solid ecosystem. With the right values and a foundational corporate infrastructure, we will build beneficial systems that work for everyone.

The future is still so much bigger than the past.

====

Exclusive: Tim Berners-Lee tells us his radical new plan to upend the World Wide Web

article by: Katrina Brooker

Last week, Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web, asked me to come and see a project he has been working on almost as long as the web itself. It's a crisp autumn day in Boston, where Berners-Lee works out of an office above a boxing gym. After politely offering me a cup of coffee, he leads us into a sparse conference room. At one end of a long table is a battered laptop covered with stickers. Here, on this computer, he is working on a plan to radically alter how all of us live and work on the web.

"The intent is world domination," Berners-Lee says with a wry smile. The British-born scientist is known for his dry sense of humor. But in this case, he is not joking.

This week, Berners-Lee will launch Inrupt, a startup that he has been building, in stealth mode, for the past nine months. Backed by Glasswing Ventures, its mission is to turbocharge a broader movement afoot, among developers around the world, to decentralize the web and take back power from the forces that have profited from centralizing it. In other words, it's game on for Facebook, Google, Amazon. For years now, Berners-Lee and other internet activists have been dreaming of a digital utopia where individuals control their own data and the internet remains free and open. But for Berners-Lee, the time for dreaming is over.

"We have to do it now," he says, displaying an intensity and urgency that is uncharacteristic for this soft-spoken academic. "It's a historical moment." Ever since revelations emerged that Facebook had allowed people's data to be misused by political operatives, Berners-Lee has felt an imperative to get this digital idyll into the real world. In a post published this weekend, Berners-Lee explains that he is taking a sabbatical from MIT to work full time on Inrupt. The company will be the first major commercial venture built off of Solid, a decentralized web platform he and others at MIT have spent years building.

A Netscape for today's internet

If all goes as planned, Inrupt will be to Solid what Netscape once was for many first-time users of the web: an easy way in. And like with Netscape, Berners-Lee hopes Inrupt will be just the first of many companies to emerge from Solid.

"I have been imagining this for a very long time," says Berners-Lee. He opens up his laptop and starts tapping at his keyboard. Watching the inventor of the web work at his computer feels like what it might have been like to watch Beethoven compose a symphony: It's riveting but hard to fully grasp. "We are in the Solid world now," he says, his eyes lit up with excitement. He pushes the laptop toward me so I too can see.

On his screen, there is a simple-looking web page with tabs across the top: Tim's to-do list, his calendar, chats, address book. He built this app–one of the first on Solid–for his personal use. It is simple, spare. In fact, it's so plain that, at first glance, it's hard to see its significance. But to Berners-Lee, this is where the revolution begins. The app, using Solid's decentralized technology, allows Berners-Lee to access all of his data seamlessly–his calendar, his music library, videos, chat, research. It's like a mashup of Google Drive, Microsoft Outlook, Slack, Spotify, and WhatsApp.

The difference here is that, on Solid, all the information is under his control. Every bit of data he creates or adds on Solid exists within a Solid pod–which is an acronym for personal online data store. These pods are what give Solid users control over their applications and information on the web. Anyone using the platform will get a Solid identity and Solid pod. This is how people, Berners-Lee says, will take back the power of the web from corporations.

For example, one idea Berners-Lee is currently working on is a way to create a decentralized version of Alexa, Amazon's increasingly ubiquitous digital assistant. He calls it Charlie. Unlike with Alexa, on Charlie people would own all their data. That means they could trust Charlie with, for example, health records, children's school events, or financial records. That is the kind of machine Berners-Lee hopes will spring up all over Solid to flip the power dynamics of the web from corporation to individuals.

A new revolution for developers?

Berners-Lee believes Solid will resonate with the global community of developers, hackers, and internet activists who bristle over corporate and government control of the web. "Developers have always had a certain amount of revolutionary spirit," he observes. Circumventing government spies or corporate overlords may be the initial lure of Solid, but the bigger draw will be something even more appealing to hackers: freedom. In the centralized web, data is kept in silos–controlled by the companies that build them, like Facebook and Google. In the decentralized web, there are no silos.

Starting this week, developers around the world will be able to start building their own decentralized apps with tools through the Inrupt site. Berners-Lee will spend this fall crisscrossing the globe, giving tutorials and presentations to developers about Solid and Inrupt. (There will be a Solid tutorial at our Fast Company Innovation Festival on October 23.)

"What's great about having a startup versus a research group is things get done," he says. These days, instead of heading into his lab at MIT, Berners-Lee comes to the Inrupt offices, which are currently based out of Janeiro Digital, a company he has contracted to help work on Inrupt. For now, the company consists of Berners-Lee; his partner John Bruce, who built Resilient, a security platform bought by IBM; a handful of on-staff developers contracted to work on the project; and a community of volunteer coders.

Later this fall, Berners-Lee plans to start looking for more venture funding and grow his team. The aim, for now, is not to make billions of dollars. The man who gave the web away for free has never been motivated by money. Still, his plans could impact billion-dollar business models that profit off of control over data. It's not likely that the big powers of the web will give up control without a fight.

When asked about this, Berners-Lee says flatly: "We are not talking to Facebook and Google about whether or not to introduce a complete change where all their business models are completely upended overnight. We are not asking their permission."



==

Victor Christianto
Founder of The Second Coming Institute, www.sci4God.com

My books and papers can be found at:
 You can also check the Neutrosophic Journal: 

http://fs.unm.edu/NSS/NSSArticles.htm  

==
We love you all nations, but time is very very limited. Be hurry to repent and receive Jesus Christ. Find a guide to help you repent and receive Jesus Christ, in this link http://www.esnips.com/web/Guidetorepent,
http://www.esnips.com/web/RepentanceGuide.
Print this guide, copy as many as you can, and distribute this to as many countries as you can, including Asian countries such as China, Burma, Thailand, Campuchea, Laos, Srilanka, and Vietnam. Pray and ask to God first before you select a language for your country. That is the message: be hurry be very very very very very hurry to repent and receive Jesus Christ, all corners of the world.
Don't you know that Jesus Christ will come again soon? That is why you should be hurry and quickly to repent and do your repentance. Tweet this message quickly and distribute this message to as many countries as you can including to all your friends quickly, quickly, quickly today. Follow Jesus only at http://www.twitter.com/Christianto2013.
Send this message quickly to all your colleagues and to all your friends. Thank you, Jesus Christ already help you. 

blog: http://guidetorepent.blogspot.com, http://findtheTruthnow.blogspot.com,
http://evangelismwithsocialmedia.blogspot.com
guide: http://GoodNews.getfreehosting.co.uk/digfile/cms/index.php (login with 'visitor')
video: http://youtube.com/guidetorepent,
facebook: http://www.facebook.com/VChristianto,
and follow Jesus only at www.twitter.com/Christianto2013

**KINDLE BOOKS:
authorpage: http://www.amazon.com/-/e/B00AZEDP4E
Articles dictated by Jesus Christ. Book Two. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AYR3F9C
Articles dictated by Jesus Christ. Book One. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AYR6TJU
by Jesus Christ: How social darwinism ruin America and the World. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZDJJQI
by Jesus Christ: Evangelism for Difficult People. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZDJCLA
by Jesus Christ: How you can do Evangelism with Social Media. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZDXZLI
by Jesus Christ: The Nicene Creed. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZDYMJ2
by Jesus Christ: Logos, Memra, and other letter for Economists. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZDY7JW
by Jesus Christ: our Father in Heaven prayer. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZKZUNM
Some problems of Nuclear Energy development in Asia: A literature survey. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00B4LW5ZW

Some papers at www.vixra.org:
www.vixra.org/abs/0912.0036
www.vixra.org/abs/0912.0037
www.vixra.org/abs/1001.0005
www.vixra.org/abs/1001.0003
www.vixra.org/abs/0912.0053

Kamis, 11 Oktober 2018

Britain's Supreme Court rules in favour of two Christian bakers

Britain's Supreme Court rules in favour of two Christian bakers

source: from The Economist Magazine

BRITAIN'S top judges have reaffirmed the principle that businesses must serve all customers, regardless of sexual orientation, gender, race or creed. But even as they did so, they delivered a sharp rebuff to a public body which claimed that very principle had been violated by a Christian-owned bakery in Belfast.  

The Supreme Court on October 10th accepted the bakers' contention that they were simply acting in line with their beliefs, rather than displaying personal hostility, when they declined an order for a cake that would have displayed the words "Support Gay Marriage" above two characters from Sesame Street, a television show. The cake would have been used for an event marking an "International Day against Homophobia".   

The ruling marks the climax of a four-year legal battle in which Gareth Lee, a gay-rights activist, argued that he suffered illegal discrimination when his order was turned away. He was successful in the earlier rounds of his case, which was backed by the Equality Commission for Northern Ireland, an agency funded by the tax-payer whose jobs include the stamping out of religious discrimination, which used to be a big problem.    

Daniel and Amy McArthur (pictured), who run the successful chain of shops, had argued that their own entitlement to deeply held beliefs would have been "extinguished" if they were forced to propagate a message that offended their conscience. They insisted that they were more than happy to provide Mr Lee with any other service; but the particular message which this client requested was one they would have refused regardless of who asked for it.

The Supreme Court emphatically agreed. Its president, Lady Hale, observed that it was "deeply humiliating" to deny someone service on grounds of legally protected characteristics, which include sexuality. "But that is not what happened in this case," she insisted, countermanding the Northern Irish courts which had vindicated Mr Lee. 

The closely watched case has drawn a mixed reaction among campaigners for gay rights. Peter Tatchell, one of Britain's best-known campaigners for gay causes, supported the couple on grounds that it was "profoundly authoritarian" to force people to disseminate statements running counter to their beliefs. The campaigner said he held this view in spite of his own strong view that Northern Ireland should fall into line with other parts of the British Isles and allow same-sex marriage.  

In Mr Tatchell's opinion, the free-speech dimension made this story different from other cases where businesses have been prosecuted for discrimination against gay people: for example, hotels which have turned away same-sex couples.  

The Ashers story will also be compared and contrasted with the many cases in the United States where florists or bakers been taken to court after refusing on religious grounds to provide services for gay weddings. In June, America's Supreme Court vindicated another a baker in Colorado who had refused to make a wedding cake for a gay couple. 

But in that case, too, the judges stressed the specificity of the case and insisted they were not issuing a licence to discriminate. The American judges thought the Colorado baker had been treated maliciously by the civil-rights commission in his state, but they accepted the legitimacy of laws protecting gay people from discrimination by businesses. 

In every case of this kind, people fear or hope for a precedent. What they often get instead is a reminder that things are never simple when two freedoms clash.

===   



Victor Christianto
Founder of The Second Coming Institute, www.sci4God.com
My books and papers can be found at:
 You can also check the Neutrosophic Journal: 

http://fs.unm.edu/NSS/NSSArticles.htm  

==
We love you all nations, but time is very very limited. Be hurry to repent and receive Jesus Christ. Find a guide to help you repent and receive Jesus Christ, in this link http://www.esnips.com/web/Guidetorepent,
http://www.esnips.com/web/RepentanceGuide.
Print this guide, copy as many as you can, and distribute this to as many countries as you can, including Asian countries such as China, Burma, Thailand, Campuchea, Laos, Srilanka, and Vietnam. Pray and ask to God first before you select a language for your country. That is the message: be hurry be very very very very very hurry to repent and receive Jesus Christ, all corners of the world.
Don't you know that Jesus Christ will come again soon? That is why you should be hurry and quickly to repent and do your repentance. Tweet this message quickly and distribute this message to as many countries as you can including to all your friends quickly, quickly, quickly today. Follow Jesus only at http://www.twitter.com/Christianto2013.
Send this message quickly to all your colleagues and to all your friends. Thank you, Jesus Christ already help you. 

blog: http://guidetorepent.blogspot.com, http://findtheTruthnow.blogspot.com,
http://evangelismwithsocialmedia.blogspot.com
guide: http://GoodNews.getfreehosting.co.uk/digfile/cms/index.php (login with 'visitor')
video: http://youtube.com/guidetorepent,
facebook: http://www.facebook.com/VChristianto,
and follow Jesus only at www.twitter.com/Christianto2013

**KINDLE BOOKS:
authorpage: http://www.amazon.com/-/e/B00AZEDP4E
Articles dictated by Jesus Christ. Book Two. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AYR3F9C
Articles dictated by Jesus Christ. Book One. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AYR6TJU
by Jesus Christ: How social darwinism ruin America and the World. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZDJJQI
by Jesus Christ: Evangelism for Difficult People. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZDJCLA
by Jesus Christ: How you can do Evangelism with Social Media. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZDXZLI
by Jesus Christ: The Nicene Creed. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZDYMJ2
by Jesus Christ: Logos, Memra, and other letter for Economists. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZDY7JW
by Jesus Christ: our Father in Heaven prayer. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZKZUNM
Some problems of Nuclear Energy development in Asia: A literature survey. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00B4LW5ZW

Some papers at www.vixra.org:
www.vixra.org/abs/0912.0036
www.vixra.org/abs/0912.0037
www.vixra.org/abs/1001.0005
www.vixra.org/abs/1001.0003
www.vixra.org/abs/0912.0053

HANDS OFF FEMALE RIGHTS! -- on transgenderism propaganda

HANDS OFF FEMALE RIGHTS!
 
(FATHER FRANK'S RANTS Rant Number 788 bis, 3 October 18)

Women's rights are under attack. By male chauvinist pigs, rapists and hideous abusers like Harvey Weinstein? Nope. By the British government. It considers bringing in a loony law called 'self-sex-ID': the triumph of a twisted 'transgender ideology'. Any man would on demand get his birth certificate reissued in the opposite sex, just like that. The 'Fair Play for Women' group, a female rights outfit, campaigns against it. And for good reasons.
 
'You are the gender you like to be', transgender ideology asserts. A silly but harmless libertarian statement? Hardly. If it became law it would allow a bloke with suitable self-sex ID to access spaces hitherto reserved for ladies. From loos to some sporting facilities. Services a woman might choose to be done by a female – from mammograms to rape counselling - could be run by a 'woman' who is actually a man. Even an imprisoned rapist might be able to get transferred to a women's prisons!
 
Transgender dogmas rule the roost in Britain. And they claim sacrificial victims. After a 'Kafkaesque trial', Helen Watts was booted out as a Guides leader for voicing her worries over the real dangers of transgenderism. Such as biological males sharing tents and lavatories with girls. Lucy Bannerman, writing in The Times, ducks the issue. The Trans movement has been hijacked by bullies and trolls, she says. So she distinguishes between Trans activists and the (pseudo-worthy) cause itself. Actually, the risks 'Fair Play for Women' highlights are not created by Trans zealots. They are implicit in this lunatic metaphysics. When the authorities contemplate turning transgenderism into law, bullying becomes state policy. QED.
 
Trans fanatics don't care about biology. Natural physical characteristics you were engendered with – genitalia, chromosomes, hormones, bodily shape, bodily hair – are irrelevant. Presumably they can be altered – a human body is to be 'sculpted' like a statue – at will. (Not in the case of chromosomes: it can't!) As Dr Ryan Anderson writes in The Daily Signal, the weird zealots' attitude to the natural body is reminiscent of ancient Gnostic dualism. The exact opposite of the doctrine of the Incarnation, which affirms an intrinsic unity between body and soul. 'With my body I thee worship', the husband says to the wife in the service of holy matrimony in the Anglican Book of Common Prayer. As a parish priest officiating at marriages I still recall the glow on the spouses' face when those words were uttered, a glorious celebration of the physical aspect of that sublime sacrament.
 
'Get them young and they are yours forever'! An old Jesuit slogan stressing the fatal hold of education on young minds. The gender theorists have latched on to that. They want vulnerable young children to be taught their nonsense. School kids are learning that their natural 'birth' sex is optional. They can embrace whatever sexuality they prefer. As young children are generally impressionable, easy to influence, you can see the potentiality for mischief in something as obnoxious as the classroom 'Gender Unicorn' graphic device, as Dr Anderson points out. It peddles Trans ideology as an expression of free choice. 'Your feelings constitute your reality', that's the absurdity they wish to brainwash kids with. As if an 80 year old man who 'felt' like a youth could then merrily approach teenage girls. Guess 'reality' would soon hit him in the face, like a brick!
 
You'd expect Christian leaders to draw the line and combat these pestilent ideas. No, a fool called Graham James, allegedly bishop of Norwich, speaking on behalf of the House of Bishops, backs a church service to 'mark a gender transition', modelled on the service for Baptism! Is it surprising the Church of England is a joke? In terminal decline, its churches increasingly made redundant, its congregations dwindling and its national influence virtually nil? Archbishop Welby wants cathedrals to become 'temples of fun'. Maybe people will come in to laugh at him and his fellow mitred asses. Crying bitterly over the moral and spiritual collapse of a formerly great and honourable Church would be a more appropriate reaction.
 
Pope Francis, to give him credit, which I don't often do, has called teaching gender ideology in schools something 'terrible', 'a war against marriage'. He has quoted Pope Emeritus Benedict who spoke about an 'ecology of man'. The analogy is with the natural ecology of planet Earth. That has to be respected. Nature can be manipulated at will only at the cost of environmental degradation and catastrophe. Similarly, human beings have their own natural, God-given male-female ecology. Seeking to disrupt that precious balance issues in disaster – as transgenderism menaces to do.
 
The battle is not for Christians only. Muslims too have reasons to be worried. And Jews. And Buddhists – that former icon of liberalism, the Dalai Lama, occasionally makes pronouncements that indicate he is not such the soppy, Zeitgeist character as his Western devotees like to pretend. There is real steel in the man.
 
Not all is lost. There is still a bit of time – till 19th October. The lunatics can be stopped, at least temporarily. Do access the brave resisters' website – www.fairplayforwomen.com – and, using their easy guide, register your opposition to changing the Gender Recognition Act. As their leaflet intimates: do it! For your mum, your daughter, your sister and yourself.
 
Revd Frank Julian Gelli


note: this article is posted here with the generous permission of Father Frank Gelli.

===
Victor Christianto
Founder of The Second Coming Institute, www.sci4God.com
My books and papers can be found at:
 You can also check the Neutrosophic Journal: 

http://fs.unm.edu/NSS/NSSArticles.htm  

==
We love you all nations, but time is very very limited. Be hurry to repent and receive Jesus Christ. Find a guide to help you repent and receive Jesus Christ, in this link http://www.esnips.com/web/Guidetorepent,
http://www.esnips.com/web/RepentanceGuide.
Print this guide, copy as many as you can, and distribute this to as many countries as you can, including Asian countries such as China, Burma, Thailand, Campuchea, Laos, Srilanka, and Vietnam. Pray and ask to God first before you select a language for your country. That is the message: be hurry be very very very very very hurry to repent and receive Jesus Christ, all corners of the world.
Don't you know that Jesus Christ will come again soon? That is why you should be hurry and quickly to repent and do your repentance. Tweet this message quickly and distribute this message to as many countries as you can including to all your friends quickly, quickly, quickly today. Follow Jesus only at http://www.twitter.com/Christianto2013.
Send this message quickly to all your colleagues and to all your friends. Thank you, Jesus Christ already help you. 

blog: http://guidetorepent.blogspot.com, http://findtheTruthnow.blogspot.com,
http://evangelismwithsocialmedia.blogspot.com
guide: http://GoodNews.getfreehosting.co.uk/digfile/cms/index.php (login with 'visitor')
video: http://youtube.com/guidetorepent,
facebook: http://www.facebook.com/VChristianto,
and follow Jesus only at www.twitter.com/Christianto2013

**KINDLE BOOKS:
authorpage: http://www.amazon.com/-/e/B00AZEDP4E
Articles dictated by Jesus Christ. Book Two. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AYR3F9C
Articles dictated by Jesus Christ. Book One. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AYR6TJU
by Jesus Christ: How social darwinism ruin America and the World. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZDJJQI
by Jesus Christ: Evangelism for Difficult People. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZDJCLA
by Jesus Christ: How you can do Evangelism with Social Media. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZDXZLI
by Jesus Christ: The Nicene Creed. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZDYMJ2
by Jesus Christ: Logos, Memra, and other letter for Economists. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZDY7JW
by Jesus Christ: our Father in Heaven prayer. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZKZUNM
Some problems of Nuclear Energy development in Asia: A literature survey. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00B4LW5ZW

Some papers at www.vixra.org:
www.vixra.org/abs/0912.0036
www.vixra.org/abs/0912.0037
www.vixra.org/abs/1001.0005
www.vixra.org/abs/1001.0003
www.vixra.org/abs/0912.0053

Rabu, 10 Oktober 2018

Bencana karena dajjal?

Bencana karena simbol dajjal?

MEMANDANG BENCANA DENGAN MATA LANGIT:
TSUNAMI, RITUAL BALIA DAN DAJJAL SI MATA SATU

Oleh Dr. Bambang Noorsena


*1. CATATAN AWAL*

Bencana Palu disikapi dengan beragam tanggapan, dari yang wajar sampai yang aneh, dari yang pasrah tawakal hingga sikap saling menyalahkan. "Bencana ini terjadi gara-gara ritual menundang arwah", kata beberapa orang. Maksudnya, ritual Balia dari suku Kahili yang tiga tahun terakhir ini rutin digelar. Allah murka karena syrik merajalela. Konon, gara-gara itu pula, Walikota dan wakil walikota Palu sembunyi selama lima hari karena takut mau dibunuh oleh warga masyarakat.

Ada pula yang menyalahkan LGBT, seraya menganggap Palu sebagai "Sodom-Gomora" yang sudah sepantasnya diazab Allah. Lebih seram lagi, peristiwa gempa dan tsunami berkekuatan 7,4 SR itu dikaitkan dengan simbol Dajjal si mata satu. Postingan berita disertai foto udara sebuah anjungan dekat pantai, yang dari kejauhan tampak mirip mata satu. "Alhamdulillah, begitu selesai dan tinggal diresmikan, telah dihancurkan oleh Allah", tega-teganya kalimat ini keluar dari mulut sebagian orang.

Secara geologis gempa dan tsunami yang mengguncang Sulawesi Tengah karena patahan Palu Koro (Palu-Koro fault) yang membelah dari kota Palu ke arah selatan dan utara. Gempa dan tsunami secara alami bisa dijelaskan karena pergerakan lempeng tektonik itu. Perlu dicatat pula, 90% wilayah Indonesia terletak di cincin api (Ring of Fire) di mana gempa bumi terjadi pada lokasi strategis ini.


*2. MEMANDANG BENCANA DENGAN MATA LANGIT*

*2.1. Ritus-Ritus Lokal?*
Melihat bencana dengan "mata bumi", tidak berarti menafikan sama sekali aspek adikodrati di balik semua kejadian itu, yang mestinya dilihat dengan "mata langit". Meskipun demikian, kita juga tidak boleh memandang fenomena ini secara "oversimplicity". Sodom dan Gomora dihancurkan Tuhan karena murka-Nya, tak usah dipertanyakan, namun serta merta menyamakannya dengan bencana Palu adalah sikap teologis yang "suka menghakimi".

Selanjutnya, menyoal acara tahunan "Palu Nomoni" (Palu berbunyi) yang dilatarbelakangi ritual suku Kaili sebagai penyebab bencana, harus juga dianggap bentuk "imperialisme doktriner" anti kearifan lokal yang "notabene" budaya bangsa kita sendiri. Jauh sebelum masuknya Hindu, Buddha, Kristen dan Islam ke Nusantara, nenek moyang kita sudah mempunyai religi lokal (the folk religion) yang memuja Tuhan melalui ritus-ritus dan simbol-simbolnya sendiri, seperti agama-agama dunia (the world religions) juga membungkus pesan-pesan abadinya dengan simbol-simbol yang berasal dari "tanah air" tempat kelahiran agama-agama itu.

Sebagai bagian dari spiritualitas Nusantara yang kaya simbol sarat makna, ritual Balia (ritual pengobatan suku Kaili di Sulawesi Tengah) sejak ratusan tahun silam selalu identik dengan membakar dupa, lengkap dengan keranda, buah-buahan, hingga hewan kurban (ayam, kambing, atau kerbau, tergantung kelas sosial sang penyelenggara). Seorang pawang lalu memimpin upacara dengan japa mantera yang menghubungkannya dengan dunia roh para leluhur.

Boleh saja kita tidak setuju dengan praktek spiritisme, namun mengaitkan bencana semata-mata karena ritual itu, juga miskin argumentasi. Sebab ada ribuan suku di negeri ini yang masih mempraktekkan ritual serupa, namun wilayah mereka aman-aman saja. Apalagi kalau alasannya karena kesan sekilas praktek keagamaan kita sekarang asing dengan dupa, persembahan buah-buahan dan korban, bukankah simbol-simbol serupa juga dikenal dalam agama-agama Ibrahim (The Abrahamaic religions) dalam perjalanan sejarahnya yang panjang?

Bukankah korban binatang juga dikenal dalam perayaan 'Id al-Adha? Apakah bedanya membakar dupa di pantai dengan ukupan di Bait al-Maqdis Yerusalem (Lukas. 1:5), yang kemudian dilanjutkan gereja Ortodoks dan Katolik? Bahkan kalau praktek ukupan ini tidak ada lagi di gereja-gereja Protestan, minimal kita masih mendengar doa: "Kiranya persembahan ini menjadi dupa yang harum di hadapan hadirat-Mu, ya Tuhan". Ini menjadi bukti bahwa ritual pedupaan mempunyai akar historis yang kuat, meskipun kini hanya tersisa dalam "biblical term" ketika kita berdoa di gereja.

*2.2. Mata Tuhan atau Mata Dajjal?*
Simbol "mata satu" yang diidentikkan sebagai mata Dajjal telah meramaikan opini gempa Sulawesi Tengah. Padahal anjungan yang tampak dari kejauhan mirip simbol mata satu itu, ternyata letaknya di kota Mamuju yang berjarak sekitar 192 km dari lokasi gempa. Bahkan kalau pun itu terletak di Palu, apa pula relevansinya dengan bencana yang terjadi?

Simbol mata satu dalam bingkai segi tiga mula-mula muncul dalam lukisan "The Lord's Supper"-nya Jacopo Pontormo (1525), yang melambangkan mata Tuhan dengan sifat Trinitas-Nya yang mengawasi segala sesuatu. Pada 1782 simbol "mata Trinitas" diusulkan menjadi lambang Amerika Serikat. Meskipun usulan itu tidak disetujui, namun simbol itu kini masih ada pada uang 1 USD. Tentu saja, "mata Trinitas" berbeda dengan simbol Freemansory, Illuminasi atau Dajjal dalam eskatologi Islam.

Lebih jelasnya, simbol mata satu dalam eskatologi Islam merujuk kepada sosok Dajjal, seperti yang disebutkan dalam Hadits Nabi:

إِنَّهُ أَعْوَرُ، وَإِنَّ رَبَّكُمْ لَيْسَ بِأَعْوَرَ، مَكْتُوْبٌ بَيْنَ عَيْنَيْهِ: كافر (يَقْرَؤُهُ كُلُّ مُسْلِمٍ).
Innahu a'war wa inna rabbukum laysa bi a'war, maktubu baina 'ainaihi: Kafir, yaqra'uhu kullu muslim.
Artinya: "Sesungguhnya Dajjal itu matanya buta sebelah, sedangkan Tuhanmu tidak buta sebelah. Dan tertulis di antara kedua mata Dajjal: Kafir, yang bisa dibaca oleh setiap Muslim" (H.R. Bukhari dan Muslim).

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّى أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ عَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ وَعَذَابِ النَّارِ وَفِتْنَةِ الْمَحْيَا وَالْمَمَاتِ وَشَرِّ الْمَسِيحِ الدَّجَّالِ
Allahumma inni a'udzu bika min 'adzab al-qabri wa 'adzab an-nar wa fitnat al-mahya wa al-mamat, wa syarri fitnat al-Masih ad-Dajjal.
Artinya: "Ya Allah, aku mohon perlindungan kepada-Mu dari siksa kubur, siksa neraka, penyimpangan ketika hidup dan mati, dan dari fitnah Al-Masih ad-Dajjal" (H.R. Muslim).

Perlu dicatat pula, bahwa istilah الْمسيح الدَّجَّالِ "Al-Masih ad-Dajjal" adalah bukan bahasa Arab asli, tetapi serapan dari bahasa Suryani (Syriac-Aramaik) ܡܫܝܚܐ ܕܓܠܐ "Mshiha Daggala" (penentang Sang Mesias), seperti yang disebutkan dalam Injil Perjanjian Baru.

ܡܢܘ ܕܓܠܐ ܐܠܐ ܐܢ ܐܝܢܐ ܕܟܦܪ ܕܝܫܘܥ ܠܐ ܗܘܐ ܡܫܝܚܐ ܗܢܐ ܗܘ ܡܫܝܚܐ ܕܓܠܐ ܗܘ ܕܟܦܪ ܒܐܒܐ ܟܦܪ ܐܦ ܒܒܪܐ ܀
Manu daggala ella in eina d'kafar d'Yeshua la hwa Mshiha, hna Hu Mshiha daggala, hu d'kafar b'Aba kafar ak b'Bra. Arrinya: "Siapakah Dajjal itu, kalau bukan dia yang menyangkal Yesus sebagai Mesiah, dia adalah Mshiha Daggala, yaitu dia yang menentang Bapa dan sekaligus menentang Putra" (1 Yokhanan 2:22, Peshitta).

Ciri كافر "kafir" yang tertulis diantara kedua mata Dajjal dalam Hadits, paralel dengan kata Aramaik ܟܦܪ "kafar" yang artinya "menyangkal", seperti diterapkan pada ungkapan ܕܟܦܪ ܕܝܫܘܥ ܠܐ ܗܘܐ ܡܫܝܚܐ "d'kafar d'Yeshua la hwa Mshiha" (menyangkal bahwa Yesus adalah Sang Mesiah). Sedangkan Ciri-ciri fisik Dajjal yang أَعْوَرُ "a'war" (buta sebelah) hanya terdapat dalam Hadits Nabi. Dengan demikian, Dajjal si Mata satu adalah original simbol eskatologi Islam.

Selanjutnya, lebih penting untuk dicatat bahwa dalam tradisi Kristiani abad pertengahan "simbol mata Trinitas" maknanya positif, berbeda dalam Hadits yang memakainya secara negafif sebagai simbol Dajjal musuh Allah. Karena itu, kita tidak bisa memakai simbol yang mungkin mirip tetapi lahir dari latarbelakang filosofi yang berbeda, tidak bisa di otak-atik untuk menafsir bencana alam yang selalu berulang dari sepanjang sejarah dunia.


*3. CATATAN AKHIR*

Bencana adalah bencana. Tidak bisa kita menyederhanakannya dalam perspektif yang serba sesisi. Kita bisa belajar dari filsafat Hindu, Tuhan dalam manifestasi "Siwa"-Nya sebagai pelebur (pralina) justru sedang mendaur-ulang ciptaan-Nya. Semua ciptaan tunduk pada "rta" atau hukum abadi dalam kendali-Nya, yaitu hukum tumbuh, kembang dan musnah. Jika alam semesta lahir dan berkembang saja, tidak pernah ada kematian, maka jagad raya ini pasti akan penuh.

Gunung meletus menelan banyak korban, tetapi juga menyuburkan tanah-tanah sekitarnya yang disiram dan dilalui oleh laharnya, dan anak-anak kita di kemudian hari yang akan menikmatinya. Tuhan tidak pernah menciptakan alam sekali jadi, dan membiarkannya berkembang sendiri di luar kendali-Nya, melainkan sebagai suatu "creatio continuo" (penciptaan terus menerus), laksana sebuah gerak dinamis tarian Siwa untuk selalu dan selalu memperbaharui semesta raya.

Jadi, dalam sederap langkah-Nya pula Sang Pencipta bisa saja menjadikan setiap bencana sebagai azab sekaligus rahmat. Bencana bukan hanya hukuman, sebab tidak membedakan siapa saja korban akibat murka-Nya dan siapa saja yang dikehendaki-Nya mati tanpa kesalahan. Ingatlah, di sana juga ada orang-orang yang baik dan tidak bersalah (minimal di mata kita) yang menjadi korban. Mungkin saja dari antara mereka adalah saudara-saudari kita yang kita cintai.

Lebih baik kalau kita renungkan, mengapa Tuhan membiarkan Ayub yang saleh itu menderita? Ketika melihat wajah Tuhan yang menyeramkan dalam gempa dan tsunami, mungkin kita ini seperti seorang awam medis melihat dokter ahli bedah dengan pisau operasi yang seakan mau membunuh pasiennya. Padahal yang dilakukan justru mau menyelamatkan pasien itu. Sang Pencipta dalam karya "creatio continuo"-Nya, mungkin harus mendahulukan keselamatan kosmis, dan sengaja melewatkan keselamatan personal ciptaan-Nya demi rancangan ilahi yang secara rinci kita tidak pernah mampu memahami-Nya.

MERDEKA !!
2018 ISCS © All Rights Reserves

Minggu, 30 September 2018

DILEMA KOTA LAMA: YERUSALEM TIMUR DALAM KONFLIK ISRAEL-PALESTINA

*DILEMA KOTA LAMA: YERUSALEM TIMUR DALAM KONFLIK ISRAEL-PALESTINA*
Tulisan Pertama dari Dua Tulisan*)

Oleh: *Dr. Bambang Noorsena*

*) Disajikan dalam Seminar Nasional "Hospitality on A Pilgrim's Way to Peace and Justice" dalam rangka 70 Tahun World Council of Churches (WCC) di Jakarta, 21 September 2018


*1. CATATAN PENGANTAR*

Salah satu faktor paling sulit dalam konflik Israel-Palestina yang tak kunjung selesai adalah klaim-klaim keagamaan soal Yerusalem. Ketika Presiden Donald Trump merealisasikan putusannya untuk memindahkan kedutaan AS dari Tel Aviv ke Yerusalem, langung menuai kecaman keras.

Harus dicatat bahwa Yerusalem adalah kota suci tiga agama besar, yaitu Yahudi, Kristen dan Islam. Bagi Yahudi kota ini sangat penting, karena di dalamnya ada Tembok Barat (Ibrani: הכותל המערבי "HaKotel HaMa'aravi"), yang lebih dikenal kaum non-Yahudi "Tembok Ratapan" (Arab: حائط المبكى "Haithun al-Mubakka"), satunya bagian yang tersisa dari Bait Suci (Ibrani: בית המקדש "Beyt HaMiqdas", Arab: بيت المقدس "Bait al-Maqdis").

Salanjutnya, bagi orang Muslim ada 2 masjid yang dikaitkan dengan mi'raj Muhammad, yaitu "Masjid Qubah al-Shakrah" (Dome of the Rock), yang dibangun oleh Khalifah 'Abd al-Malik bin Marwan (695 M), dan Masjid Al-Aqsha yang dibangun oleh putranya, Khalifah Walid bin 'Abd al-Malik (705 M). Istilah الْمَسْجِدِ الْأَقْصَى "al-Masjid al-Aqsha" diambil dari Al-Qur'an: سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي أَسْرَىٰ بِعَبْدِهِ لَيْلًا مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ إِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ الْأَقْصَى "Subhāna alladzi bi'abdihi asrā laylan min al-Masjīd al-Harām ila al-Masjīd al-Aqshā". Artinya: "Maha suci Allah yang telah menjalankan hamba-Nya pada malam hari dari Masjid al-Haram ke Masjid al-Aqsha" (Q.s. Al-Isra'/17:1).

Sedangkan bagi orang Kristen, di kota suci ini berdiri Gereja Kebangkitan Kristus (Yunani: Ναὸς τῆς Ἀναστάσεως "Naos tes Anastaseos", Arab: كنيسة القيامة "Kanīsah al-Qiyāmah", Latin: "Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri", Ibrani: כנסיית הקבר‎, "Knesiyat HaQever"). Gereja ini dibangun sejak tahun 326 M, atas perintah Ratu Helena di atas situs Golgota, tempat penyaliban Sang Kristus. Pada tahun 136 M Kaisar Hadrianus sengaja membangun kuil Venus di situs kubur kosong, supaya orang Kristiani tidak bisa menziarahinya lagi. Selama gereja ini dibangun pada masa Kaisar Konstantin Agung, di sana telah diketemukan kembali salib Kristus di situs Golgota, seperti yang secara rinci dilaporkan oleh sejarawan Socrates Scholasticus dalam bukunya "Historia Ecclesiastica" (380 M).


*2. KLAIM-KLAIM TEOLOGIS ATAS KOTA SUCI YERUSALEM*

Dalam konflik Israel-Palestina tentang kepemilikan Yerusalem Timur, sering kita dengar klaim-klaim teologis kedua pihak berdasarkan Alkitab maupun Al-Qur'an dan Hadits.

*2.1. KLAIM ISRAEL*
לשנה הבאה בירושלים
‎"LeShanah Haba'ah b'Yrusalayim" (Tahun depan di Yerusalem).

Selama berabad-abad kalimat ini diucapkan dengan penuh harapan pada setiap Paskah Yahudi, selama mereka menjadi kaum "diaspora" sejak mereka terusir dari Tanah Suci, menyusul dihancurkannya Bait Allah oleh Jenderal Titus dari Roma tahun 70 M. Sumber Yahudi kuno, Megilat Ta'anit (Gulungan Puasa) menyebutkan pentingnya tanggal 9 bulan Av (Ibrani: תשעה באב atau ט׳ באב, "Tisha be Ab") sebagai puasa perkabungan bagi kaum Yahudi karena runtuhnya Bait Suci. Selama 2.000 tahun setiap orang Yahudi di seluruh dunia rindu kembali ke Yerusalem, khususnya ke בית המקדש "Beyt HaMiqdas", sekalipun secara fisik yang tersisa hanya Tembok Ratapan.

Mungkin orang Kristen tidak mempunyai ikatan emosional yang sekuat orang Yahudi, sekalipun Golgota adalah situs sejarah yang penting bagi Kekristenan, tetapi tidak termasuk dalam kewajiban teologis untuk menziarahinya. Begitu juga bagi umat Islam, posisi al-Quds (Yerusalem) menempati urutan ketiga setelah kedua kota suci (Al-Haramain), yaitu Makkah dan Madinah. Juga, keterkaitan Islam dengan Yerusalem secara historis baru mulai dari zaman Umar, bukan sejak awal dari zaman Nabi, kecuali yang berkaitan dengan peristiwa metahistoris Isra' Mi'raj.

Catatan sejarah di luar Kitab Suci, menunjukkan bahwa Israel maupun Palestina telah eksis di Tanah Suci selama berabad-abad. Sebagai entitas kebangsaan "Israel" sudah disebut dalam prasasti Firaun Merenptah (1213-1203 SM) dalam aksara hieroglyp kuno: "Israel dibiarkan gersang dan benihnya tidak ada" (Ysr'ir p'lat ben perat-f). Selanjutnya, Israel sebagai negara telah disebut dalam prasasti Moab (850 SM), yang menyebut עמרי מלך ישראל "Omri, Melek Ysrael" Omri, raja Israel).

Sebagaimana Israel, dalam catatan sejarah kuno di luar Alkitab, kaum Filistin juga disebut oleh sejarawan kuno Herodotus (450 SM), meskipun tidak pernah eksis sebagai suatu negara. Istilah modern "Palestina" (Arab فلستيون, "Falistiniyun") adalah padanan untuk kata Ibrani: פְּלִשְׁתִּים, "Plištim"), pertama kali disebut dalam Taurat, Kej. 10:13-14 sebagai keturunan Kaslihim. Rujukan selanjutnya, Ul. 2:23 menyebut "yang berasal dari Kaftor". Juga, Filistin telah tinggal di lima kota (Pentapolis) kuno, yaitu Gaza, Askelon, Asdod, Ekron, dan Gat. Letaknya membentang dari selatan sampai ke utara, mulai lembah Gaza hingga sungai Yarkon.

Septuaginta (disingkat LXX), terjemahan Alkitab dalam bahasa Yunani dari abad III SM, menerjemahkan Filistin dalam beberapa kata. Dalam berbagai ayat Alkitab LXX, פְּלִשְׁתִּים, "Plištim", kadang-kadang hanya dialih-aksarakan menjadi Φυλιστιειμ "Pulistieim" (Kej. 21:34), ελλενας "Hellenas" (Yes. 9:11, "orang Yunani") , dan ἀλλόφυλοι, "allophuloi" (1 Sam. 31:1, "bangsa-bangsa lain" ). Dalam Alkitab bentuk jamak פְּלִשְׁתִּים, "Plištim", memang merujuk kepada lebih dari satu kaum, yaitu פְלִשְׁתִּיִּ֥ים מִכַּפְתּ֖וֹר "Plištiyim mekaftorim" (Am. 9:7, "orang Filistin dari Kaftor"), יֹֽשְׁבֵ֛י חֶ֥בֶל הַיָּ֖ם גּ֣וֹי כְּרֵתִ֑ים "yosabe ḥebel hayyam kretīm" (Zef. 2:5, "penduduk daerah tepi laut, orang Kreti"), yang tampaknya merujuk kepada penduduk Kreta yang berasal dari Aegea, wilayah Yunani.

Dalam Yer. 47:4-5 bahwa kaum Fististin sebagai פְּלִשְׁתִּים שְׁאֵרִית אִי כַפְתּוֹר "Plištim se'erit i'kaftor" (orang Filistin, yang datang dari Kaftor), menunjukkan bahwa di mata orang Yahudi mereka orang asing, sehingga dalam beberapa ayat LXX menyebut mereka sebagai ἀλλόφυλοι, "allophuloi" (bangsa-bangsa yang lain). Meskipun demikian, Alkitab menyebut juga כְּנַ֙עַן֙ אֶ֣רֶץ פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים "Kana'na arets Plištim" (Zef. 2:5, "Kanaan, tanah orang Filistin") Jadi, sekalipun secara Tanah Suci ini telah diberikan kepada bani Israel (Yos. 13:2-3: 15:45-47), namun kaum Filistin telah menduduki Tanah Suci sebelum Bani Israel mendudukinya pada zaman Yosua.

Selanjutnya, secara historis memang Israel pernah eksis sebagai negara sejak zaman Daud dan Salomo, namun wilayahnya dari zaman ke zaman berbeda-beda. Kerajaan Daud dan Salomo menguasai Israel raya, namun pasca-Salomo negara ini terpecah menjadi dua: Israel dan Yehuda, selanjutnya pembuangan ke Babel, lalu kerajaan Yehuda di bawah dinasti Makabe, menyusul penjajahan Romawi, sampai peristiwa "diaspora" sejak runtuhnya Bait Suci pads tahun 70 M. Semua wilayah yang berbeda dari zaman yang berbeda pula, semua ada rujukannya dalam Alkitab.

*2.2. Klaim Palestina-Islam*
Klaim Israel atas Tanah Suci yang didasarkan atas fakta historis bahwa Israel pernah eksis sebagai negara besar di bawah pemerintahan Daud dan Salomo, juga tidak lepas dari kritik. Mengapa? Karena Daud dan Salomo (Sulaiman), kedua raja Israel itu, juga diimani sebagai nabi-nabi bagi Islam. Sebaliknya, kalau hak kepemilikan Palestina atas tanah ini didasarkan klaim teologis Al-Qur'an, lebih parah lagi akan menjadi "senjata makan tuan". Sebab Kitab Suci Islam sendiri mengakui bahwa Palestina telah diberikan kepada kaum Musa, yaitu Bani Israel: يَا قَوْمِ ادْخُلُوا الأرْضَ الْمُقَدَّسَةَ الَّتِي كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ وَلا تَرْتَدُّوا عَلَى أَدْبَارِكُمْ فَتَنْقَلِبُوا خَاسِرِينَ Yā qaumi udzkhulu al-ardha Al-muqaddasat allatī kataba allahu lakum wa lā yataddu 'ala adbārikim fatanqalibu khasirīn. Artinya: "Hai kaumku, masuklah ke tanah suci yang telah ditentukan Allah bagimu, dan janganlah kamu mundur, maka kamu menjadi orang-orang yang merugi" (Q.s. Al-Ma'idah/5:21).

Selanjutnya, kalau klaim teologis Palestina didasarkan atas idenfifikasi dengan kaum Filistin kuno, kendalanya bangsa Palestina harus mau disamakan dengan "kaum gagah perkasa" yang harus diusir keluar dari Tanah Suci supaya umat Musa bisa memasukinya (Q.s. Al-Maidah/5:22, قَوْمًا جَبَّارِينَ وَإِنَّا لَنْ نَدْخُلَهَا حَتَ يَخْرُجُوا مِنْهَا "qaumān jabarīna wa innā nadkhuluhā ḥatta yakhruju minhā"). Jadi, sebutan Palestina modern tidak sama dengan bangsa Filistin kuno, yang diidentikkan dengan "kaum raksasa" musuh Daud, yaitu Goliat (Jalut) menurut kisah Alkitab maupun Al-Qur'an.

Faktanya, bangsa Palestina sekarang yang sebagian besar adalah emigran Arab yang sudah datang selama beberapa abad terakhir, sebelumnya menjadi warga dari salah satu propinsi kekhalifahan Turki Utsmani sebelum keruntuhannya tahun 1924. Nama "Palestina" justru dipopulerkan pertama kali pada tahun 136M oleh Kaisar Hadrianus, penguasa pagan Romawi, yaitu Syria-Palestina sebagai propinsi baru Romawi yang menggabungkan wilayah Syria dan Yudea. Berbareng dengan ditundukkan pemberontakan Yahudi Bar Kokhba, untuk menghapus identitas keyahudian agar tidak membangkitkan kembali nasionalisme Israel, nama Yerusalem juga diubah menjadi nama pagan "Alia-Capitolina" (Adrian Woff, 2010:108).

Menariknya, bukan nama Yerusalem yang dikenal dalam literatur Islam, tetapi justru إيليا "Iliyā", bentuk arabisasi dari Aleia. Nama ini diabadikan dalam dokumen Perjanjian Umar (Arab: العهدة العمرية, "Al-'Ahdat al-'Umariyya"), Perjanjian Iliya (Arab: ميثاق إيليا, "Mitstāq Iliyā"), seperti yang dicatat dalam Tarikh Ath-Thabari III, 609. Setelah diawali dengan bacaan "basmallah", perjanjian ini diawali dengan kalimat: هذا ما أعطى عبد الله عمر أمير المؤمنين أهل إيليا من. الأمان, "Hadzā mā a'thā 'abdullahi 'umar amīr al-mu'minīn ahla iliyā min al-amān" (Inilah jaminan keamanan yang diberikan `Abdullah, Umar, Amir al-Mu'minin kepada penduduk Aelia).

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Victor Christianto
Founder of The Second Coming Institute, www.sci4God.com


My books and papers can be found at:
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We love you all nations, but time is very very limited. Be hurry to repent and receive Jesus Christ. Find a guide to help you repent and receive Jesus Christ, in this link http://www.esnips.com/web/Guidetorepent,
http://www.esnips.com/web/RepentanceGuide.
Print this guide, copy as many as you can, and distribute this to as many countries as you can, including Asian countries such as China, Burma, Thailand, Campuchea, Laos, Srilanka, and Vietnam. Pray and ask to God first before you select a language for your country. That is the message: be hurry be very very very very very hurry to repent and receive Jesus Christ, all corners of the world.
Don't you know that Jesus Christ will come again soon? That is why you should be hurry and quickly to repent and do your repentance. Tweet this message quickly and distribute this message to as many countries as you can including to all your friends quickly, quickly, quickly today. Follow Jesus only at http://www.twitter.com/Christianto2013.
Send this message quickly to all your colleagues and to all your friends. Thank you, Jesus Christ already help you. 

Christian books as published in Germany:
1. 

A.L.I.C.E. with Jesus

A LIfe-Changing Experience with Jesus. url: https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/a-l-i-c-e-with-jesus/isbn/978-3-639-50080-6

2. 

Drink the New Wine

Experience God in your daily life. url: https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/drink-the-new-wine/isbn/978-3-639-50082-0

3. 

Grace for You

44 Guides for Living inspired by Jesus Christ

https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/grace-for-you/isbn/978-3-639-50070-7

4. 

Seeking a Theory for the End of the World

Introduction to Fractal Vibrating String. url: https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/seeking-a-theory-for-the-end-of-the-world/isbn/978-3-659-58074-1


5. 

A Biblical Theory of Everything

Inspired by the Johannine Prologue. url: https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/a-biblical-theory-of-everything/isbn/978-3-659-78041-7 


=======
Find ebooks written by Jesus at: http://guidetorepent.uphero.com
blog: http://guidetorepent.blogspot.com, http://findtheTruthnow.blogspot.com,
http://evangelismwithsocialmedia.blogspot.com
guide: http://GoodNews.getfreehosting.co.uk/digfile/cms/index.php (login with 'visitor')
video: http://youtube.com/guidetorepent,
facebook: http://www.facebook.com/VChristianto,
and follow Jesus only at www.twitter.com/Christianto2013

**KINDLE BOOKS:
authorpage: http://www.amazon.com/-/e/B00AZEDP4E
Articles dictated by Jesus Christ. Book Two. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AYR3F9C
Articles dictated by Jesus Christ. Book One. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AYR6TJU
by Jesus Christ: How social darwinism ruin America and the World. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZDJJQI
by Jesus Christ: Evangelism for Difficult People. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZDJCLA
by Jesus Christ: How you can do Evangelism with Social Media. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZDXZLI
by Jesus Christ: The Nicene Creed. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZDYMJ2
by Jesus Christ: Logos, Memra, and other letter for Economists. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZDY7JW
by Jesus Christ: our Father in Heaven prayer. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AZKZUNM
Some problems of Nuclear Energy development in Asia: A literature survey. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00B4LW5ZW

Some papers at www.vixra.org:
www.vixra.org/abs/0912.0036
www.vixra.org/abs/0912.0037
www.vixra.org/abs/1001.0005
www.vixra.org/abs/1001.0003
www.vixra.org/abs/0912.0053

One Small Step for the Web...

a blog post by Tim Berners-Lee (inventor of World Wide Web) https://www.inrupt.com/blog/one-small-step-for-the-web I've always believed ...