Selasa, 04 Desember 2018

Orang-orang Majus dan Bintang Betlehem

Orang-orang Majus dan Bintang Betlehem

Teks: Matius 2:1 "Sesudah Yesus dilahirkan di Betlehem di tanah Yudea pada zaman raja Herodes, datanglah orang-orang Majus dari Timur ke Yerusalem."
 
 
Shalom, para sahabat dalam Yesus Kristus. Menjelang peringatan kelahiran Yesus Kristus tahun ini, tentu kita akan kerap mendengar lagu O Holy Night, yang dilantunkan oleh para penyanyi terkenal seperti Celine Dion dan Mariah Carey:
 
O holy night the stars are brightly shining It is the night of our dear Savior's birth Long lay the world in sin and error pining Till He appeared and the soul felt its worth A thrill of hope the weary world rejoices For yonder breaks a new glorious morn Fall on your knees O hear the angels' voices O night divine O night when Christ was born O night divine o night O night divine1
 
 
Di bagian awal lagu ini menyebut tentang bintang Betlehem yang cemerlang. Karena itu ijinkan saya menanyakan tiga pertanyaan sederhana:


Pertanyaan pertama: siapakah yang mendengar pertama kali tentang kelahiran Sang Putra Allah yang hidup, Raja di atas segala Raja?
 
J: Bukan ahli Taurat, bukan para gembala, juga bukan para pejabat di istana Herodes.
 
P: Lalu siapa? 
 
J: Para astronom. Ya, orang-orang Majusi disebut demikian karena mereka adalah sekelompok orang bijak nan cendekia, yang bukan mustahil mendalami astronomi pada waktu itu. Mereka mendeteksi kehadiran bintang yang tidak lazim, lalu mengikuti jejaknya. 
"The Magi were not simple astrologers; they were professional astronomers as well. Over the centuries they became important members of royal courts, often serving as emissaries to the kings by whom they were employed. The secrets of their teachings were reserved for other members of their profession and royalty. The Magi, particularly those from the eastern parts of what was then considered to be the civilized world, were held in high esteem."(4)
 
Ada catatan yang menduga bahwa mereka bukanlah para raja dari Timur, melainkan imam-imam Zoroastrian, yang menyebut Tuhan sebagai Ahura Mazda:
 
"Is it just a coincidence that the "Three Wise Men" called God by the name of Ahura Mazda ("Wise God")?  It does not mean "the god of wisdom", as if there were more than one deity. In it's original language the words simply mean "Wise God".  Nor does Ahura Mazda have a gender. In the original language (Gathic and Avestan) the word "Ahura" is male oriented and means "lord".  However, the word "Mazda" is associated with the female gender and means wisdom.  The name Ahura Mazda contains both male and female attributes.  Women are listed among Zarathustra's earliest followers."(1)
 
Itu mungkin sebabnya beberapa lukisan dan ornamen Byzantian 
menggambarkan mereka dengan jubah Persia dan atributnya:
 
"As here Byzantine art usually depicts the Magi in Persian clothing which includes breeches, capes, and Phrygian caps."(2)
 
Bahkan kabarnya ada temuan tulang-tulang yang diduga milik kaum Magi tersebut, setidaknya menurut laporan Marco Polo:
 
"In Persia is the city of Saba, from which the Three Magi set out and in this city they are buried, in three very large and beautiful monuments, side by side. And above them there is a square building, beautifully kept. The bodies are still entire, with hair and beard remaining. — Marco Polo, Polo, Marco, The Book of the Million, book i."(2)
 
Pertanyaan kedua: Apakah persembahan keempat yang dibawa oleh para Majus?
 
J: Bukan emas, kemenyan dan mur, walau itu penting. Memang bapa-bapoa gereja seperti Origen menyatakan bahwa ada makna tersirat dalam persembahan para Majus tersebut: emas untuk seorang raja, kemenyan untuk seorang dewa, dan mur untuk meminyaki saat pemakaman. Jadi emas kemenyan dan mur menyiratkan bahwa Yesus adalah seorang raja yang berasal dari Bapa sendiri, namun akan mati sebagai manusia biasa. Ada catatan yang menarik tentang penyembahan orang Majus ini:

"The Magi's adoration of Jesus probably alludes the homage of nations in Ps 72:10, Is 60:6 and/or to the Queen of Sheba visiting Solomon (1 Ki 10:113) (Davies & Allison 2004:230). A midrash on the Queen of Sheba includes a miraculous star. If Matthew has these texts in mind, his narrative depicts Jesus as the King for Solomon's greatest Son (cf Mt 12:42: "The Queen of the South will rise at the judgement with this generation and condemn it; for she came from the ends of the earth to listen to Solomon's wisdom, and now one greater than Solomon is here"). Matthew is exhorting his audience to be as receptive to Jesus as the Magi were."(3) 

Namun demikian, bagi penulis setidaknya, persembahan keempat orang-orang Majus adalah hati mereka. Tanpa hati, tidak mungkin mereka menempuh perjalanan ribuan mil dari daerah Persia ke Betlehem hanya untuk berjumpa dengan seorang kanak-kanak yang tidak terkenal.2 Demikianlah Tuhan Yesus akan sangat menghargai apapun yang kita persembahkan kepadaNya, asal kita memberikan yang terbaik dan dengan segenap hati. Karena Tuhan melihat hati. Itulah sebabnya, Yesus menyebut dua peser persembahan seorang janda sebagai persembahan terbesar hari itu, karena janda itu memberikan seluruh nafkahnya. 

Pertanyaan ketiga Yang lebih mengusik saya akhir-akhir ini adalah: 
P: Apakah yang dilihat oleh para Majus itu benar-benar bintang? Atau planet Jupiter yang berpendar? J: Ada beberapa teori tentang Bintang yang cemerlang tersebut, di antaranya: Konjungsi planet, Jupiter atau Sirius (Menurut catatan sejarah gereja). Hal ini merupakan salah satu pokok perdebatan klasik di antara para astronom, dan ada banyak teori telah dikemukakan. Bahkan Johanes Kepler juga menyelidiki bintang Betlehem. Salah satu yang menarik salah satunya adalah catatan  Susan Carroll:
"However, these astronomical events, exciting as they were, pale by comparison to the events of an 18 month period during 3-2 BC. This was one of the most remarkable periods in terms of celestial events in the last 3000 years. These celestial events no doubt inspired many wonderful and mystical interpretations, by the priests and religious peoples of those times. And coincidentally, they occurred when the entire Roman empire was in celebration. It was as though the heavens were confirming the greatness of the sovereignty of the Roman Empire in general, and Caesar Augustus in particular. On May 19, 3 BC, the planets Saturn and Mercury were in close conjunction - within 40 (minutes of arc) of each other. Then Saturn moved eastward through the stars to meet with Venus on June 12, 3BC. During this conjunction the two were only 7.2 apart.."(4)
Untuk lebih spesifik lagi, Colin J. Humphreys mencatat beberapa karakteristik Bintang Betlehem menurut catatan Matius:
"There are several specific characteristics of the star of Bethlehem recorded in Matthew's gospel which, if accepted, allow the type of astronomical object to be identified uniquely.  The characteristics are as follows: 
(i) It was a star which had newly appeared.  Matthew 2:7 states 'Then Herod summoned the Magi secretly and ascertained from them the exact time when the star had appeared'.  (ii) It travelled slowly through the sky against the star background.  The Magi 'saw his star in the east' (Mt. 2:2) then they came to Jerusalem where Herod sent them to Bethlehem, then 'they went on their way and the star they had seen in the east went ahead of them' (Mt. 2:9).  Since Bethlehem is to the south of Jerusalem the clear implication is that the star of Bethlehem moved slowly through the sky from the east to the south in the time taken for the Magi to travel from their country to Jerusalem, probably about one or two months (see p. 48).  (iii) The star 'stood over' Bethlehem.  Matthew 2:9 records that the star 'went ahead of them and stood over the place where the child was'.  Popular tradition has the star pointing out the very house, οἶκος (Mt. 2:11) in which Christ was born, but Matthew neither states nor implies this:  according to him, viewed from Jerusalem the star stood over the place where the child was born, i.e. Bethlehem."(5)
Salah satu dugaan yang cukup menarik, adalah konjungsi antara Jupiter dan Regulus:

"September 11, 3 B.C., is perhaps the most interesting date of all. Not only was Jupiter very close to Regulus in the first of their conjunctions, but the sun was in the constellation of Virgo (of obvious symbolism), together with the new moon, in a configuration that fits a plausible interpretation of a passage in the Book of Revelation describing the birth of a male child who is to be the ruler of the universe. Significantly, September 11, 3 B.C., also marked the beginning of the Jewish New Year, traditionally regarded as the anniversary of Noah's landing after the Great Flood. But if the planet Jupiter was the Star of Bethlehem, or was a component of the events that triggered the visit by the Magi, how do we view the final appearance of the Star on their journey to Bethlehem? It would have been in the southern sky, though fairly high above the horizon. Could it have stopped over Bethlehem?" (6)
 
Bagaimana menjadi seperti para Majus? 
Saya kira Alkitab tidak mengajarkan kita untuk memberikan emas atau kemenyan sebagai hadiah Natal. 
Mungkin lebih bijak membaca teks ini sebagai motivasi agar kita memberikan apa yang terbaik yang ada pada kita untuk melayani Tuhan dan sesama. Itulah hadiah terbaik bagi Yesus, sang bayi Immanuel. Demikian pula, di gereja kami ada kelompok pemusik yang menamai grup mereka sebagai: Wong Majus. Sungguh patut diacungi jempol, mereka berusaha memberikan talenta musik mereka untuk memuliakan Tuhan.*
 
Mari kita sambut hari Natal dalam damai dan penuh ucapan syukur.
 
"Kemuliaan bagi Allah di tempat yang mahatinggi dan damai sejahtera di bumi di antara manusia yang berkenan kepada-Nya." (Luk. 2:41)
 
 
Versi 1.0: 4 desember 2018, pk. 16:31 Versi 1.1: 4 desember 2018, pk. 19:33
 
VC

*tulisan ini terinspirasi dari grup musik: Wong Majus. Salut buat mas Heru, Ines, Bertha, Maria, Galih dkk. Terimakasih atas diskusi dengan bu Shafa Noorsena. God bless you always.
 
 
Bacaan lanjutan: 
(3) Francois P. Viljoen. The significance of dreams and the star in Matthew's infancy narrative. url: HTS 64(2) 2008 
(4) Susan S. Carroll. THE STAR OF BETHLEHEM: AN ASTRONOMICAL AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE. 
 (5) Colin J. Humphreys. THE STAR OF BETHLEHEM, A COMET IN 5 BC AND THE DATE OF CHRIST'S BIRTH. Tyndale Bulletin 43.1 (1992) 31-56. (6) Craig Chester. The star of betlehem. President, Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy.  
(7) Bradley E. Schaefer. ASTRONOMICAL AND HISTORICAL EVALUATION OF MOLNAR'S SOLUTION. This is the author's submitted version for what has been recently published as Chapter 4 in the book "The Star of Bethlehem and the Magi", 2015, edited by Peter Barthel and George van Kooten (published by Brill in Leiden).  This book has contributions from the conference on the 'Star of Bethlehem', held in Groningen in October 2014.


====

Victor Christianto
Founder of The Second Coming Institute, www.sci4God.com
Founder of www.acaraindo.com, Promoting cultural and music events in Jakarta and other cities
Founder of www.ketindo.com, A renewable energy consultant 
My books and papers can be found at:
 You can also check the Neutrosophic Journal: 

http://fs.unm.edu/NSS/NSSArticles.htm  

==
We love you all nations, but time is very very limited. Be hurry to repent and receive Jesus Christ. Find a guide to help you repent and receive Jesus Christ, in this link http://www.esnips.com/web/Guidetorepent,
http://www.esnips.com/web/RepentanceGuide.
Print this guide, copy as many as you can, and distribute this to as many countries as you can, including Asian countries such as China, Burma, Thailand, Campuchea, Laos, Srilanka, and Vietnam. Pray and ask to God first before you select a language for your country. That is the message: be hurry be very very very very very hurry to repent and receive Jesus Christ, all corners of the world.
Don't you know that Jesus Christ will come again soon? That is why you should be hurry and quickly to repent and do your repentance. Tweet this message quickly and distribute this message to as many countries as you can including to all your friends quickly, quickly, quickly today. Follow Jesus only at http://www.twitter.com/Christianto2013.
Send this message quickly to all your colleagues and to all your friends. Thank you, Jesus Christ already help you. 

blog: http://guidetorepent.blogspot.com, http://findtheTruthnow.blogspot.com,
http://evangelismwithsocialmedia.blogspot.com
guide: http://GoodNews.getfreehosting.co.uk/digfile/cms/index.php (login with 'visitor')
video: http://youtube.com/guidetorepent,
facebook: http://www.facebook.com/VChristianto,
and follow Jesus only at www.twitter.com/Christianto2013

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authorpage: http://www.amazon.com/-/e/B00AZEDP4E
Articles dictated by Jesus Christ. Book Two. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00AYR3F9C
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Some papers at www.vixra.org:
www.vixra.org/abs/0912.0036
www.vixra.org/abs/0912.0037
www.vixra.org/abs/1001.0005
www.vixra.org/abs/1001.0003
www.vixra.org/abs/0912.0053

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Orang-orang Majus dan Bintang Betlehem

Orang-orang Majus dan Bintang Betlehem Teks: Matius 2:1 "Sesudah Yesus dilahirkan di Betlehem di tanah Yudea pada zaman raja Herodes, d...